War in Ukraine
There also appears to be a lack of precision-guided munitions. "It's costly, and they have in effect been rebuilding their air force, relatively speaking, on the cheap," says Justin Bronk, an air warfare expert at the Royal United Services Institute, a British think tank. To attack targets on the battlefield, he says, Russians are having to rely on unguided bombs dropped from lower altitudes. This exposes the aircraft to the threat of shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles, he says.