Xi’s ‘dual circulation’ strategy: reframing globalisation

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In Hong Kong, a recent definition included ecological, technological, economic, cultural, territorial, social and cyber security. Against this backdrop, the role of ‘external circulation’ depends on an assessment of the benefits and risks it can bring to China. In the words of Mao Zedong: “Make the foreign serve China”. But there is nothing uniquely Chinese about this way of thinking. The same framework describes the three areas of intervention open to any national government.