50 years on from the first lunar landing, the Moon is once again taking centre stage in international space ambitions. Yet, within a more democratised and complex space environment, and with Mars and other celestial bodies seen as additional exploratory targets, talk of a new ‘space race’ may be misplaced.
The scale and highly integrated nature of the US’s Multi-Domain Operations concept for future warfare requires coordination, mutual understanding of capabilities and permissions sharing between armed services. These exceed what NATO allies can currently achieve
As missile defence becomes a central feature of many states’ security postures, it is attendant to frame the enterprise in a wider strategic context to understand its importance. The classic geopolitical dichotomy between Heartland and Rimland states outlined by Halford Mackinder and Nicholas Spykman might help us understand the geopolitical significance of global allied missile defences.