North Korean Missiles Used by Russia Against Ukraine Are Products of Sanction Loopholes

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Aaron Arnold, a former member of the U.N. Panel of Experts for North Korea's sanctions, said, however, that the discoveries show "how porous Western export control systems can be." Arnold, who is currently a senior associate fellow at Centre for Financial Crime and Security Studies at the Royal United Service Institute, told VOA via email on Friday that some of the items that ended up in the North Korean missile are items that can be used to make weapons as well as commercial goods. "While I can't say for sure in this particular case, some of the micro-electronics are dual use, meaning, they could be commonplace and used in other commercial applications," Arnold said. "Some of the Western micro-electronics found in Russian drones, for example, are also used in refrigerators."