Ireland and Israel — a complicated, strained relationship

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Ed Arnold, an expert on European security at the Royal United Services Institute, said the relationship between Israel and Europe’s intelligence services tended to be a professional one despite any political issues that arose. “Israel is a tier-one intelligence actor. They have very good relations across Europe and the transatlantic community and wider, which has been consistent for the past 20 years,” Arnold said. “It’s developed significantly since 9/11. They have very close collaboration on specific intelligence requirements and routine collection. Both sides often stumble across information which will be useful for either side.”