A Norwegian F-35 A on NATO Quick Reaction Alert intercepting a Russian TU-95MS ‘BEAR-H’ near Norwegian airspace. Courtesy of Forsvaret/Norwegian Armed Forces
An assessment of the methods used by Russia to compel Norway to comply with its policy and security objectives.
Norway’s geopolitical position as both a neighbour of Russia and a member of NATO places it at the forefront of Moscow’s self-assertive and aggressive foreign and security policy. However, Norway’s NATO membership reduces Russia’s room for manoeuvre to actions below the threshold of armed conflict. In this article, Runar Spansvoll examines how Russia has made use of such aggressive and coercive sub-threshold activities in the political, information and military domains between 2014–23 in a campaign to compel Oslo to comply with its foreign and security policy objectives.