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US Attorney General Jeff Sessions is sworn-in to testify before the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, June 2017. Sessions has firmly denied accusations that he colluded with Russians in the conduct of the 2016 presidential election. Courtesy of

Influence and Interference in Foreign Elections: The Evolution of its Practice

Paul Baines and Nigel Jones
RUSI Journal, 16 March 2018
There is a long history of influence and interference in foreign elections.

The use of influence or interference activities by one country to change the tide of elections in another has recently gained prominence due to alleged Russian influence in the 2016 US presidential election and the 2017 French presidential election. In this article, Paul Baines and Nigel Jones chart the evolution of influence and interference in foreign elections. With the rise of its modern digital form, they consider whether it is acceptable as a norm in international relations, or a violation.

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