If the reported intention to replace Germany’s ageing Tornado fleet with a mix of up to 90 Eurofighters, 30 Super Hornets and 15 Growlers is correct, the Luftwaffe will be getting the worst of all previously mooted outcomes
The political and security situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina has not substantially changed in the last couple of years, but this should not be mistaken for stability. The domestic situation is likely to get worse.
In Project Haldane, the British Army’s endeavour to breathe new life into its reserve forces, the Army faces a unique opportunity to ensure its Reserve is configured for the next war; how it reacts may determine its future as a Reference Force.
Modern deterrence is concerned with how countries employ their resilience potential to deter today’s hybrid threats, especially through the involvement of the private sector and civil society. New approaches will likely build on the practices already developed by countries exhibiting a strategy of ‘total defence’.
In 1947, Pakistan’s army inherited the default position and strategy of British India in opposing Russian influence and inroads into Afghanistan and Central Asia. Now, for the first time in 200 years, they have reversed the old British policy of confronting the Russians for control over Central Asia. Pakistan’s army now sees the Russians as their strategic partners.