A RUSI roundtable in January 2019 discussed Russia's involvement in elections in Ukraine, in light of the country's upcoming election. Tools for involvement have included political destabilisation, media manipulation, and economic interconnection. Participants discussed Ukraine's resistance to influence and the need for further study.
The fact that the three Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia managed to establish, lose, and restore their sovereign statehood during the 20th Century is no guarantee they will be able to preserve it in the 21st. But it gives them a heads up when facing the multiple hybrid security threats that they and other European states must contend with these days.
In initiating action against ISIS in Syria, the US operation sees combat use of the F-22 stealth fighter for the first time and Gulf states deploying their air assets for power projection in the region.
Laser weapons have dominated futuristic weaponry in science fiction for decades, whilst the military has used lasers as range finders and to designate targets for guided weapons since the Vietnam War. Due to ongoing improvements in optics, power generation and control systems, the use of lasers to generate lethal effects is becoming a reality
Whilst some in the air power community look at Russian and Chinese stealth fighter designs as the main threat to Western air superiority in a future conflict, the air picture in Eastern Europe suggests the greatest threat may come from the ground