RUSI NewsbriefVOLUME 39ISSUE 10members only

The Paradox at the Heart of NATO’s Return to Article 5


To respond effectively to the threats NATO faces in its eighth decade, and to safeguard the promise of collective defence enshrined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, the Alliance must refocus time and resources on fighting its adversaries in the grey zone. 

Since 2014, NATO has refocused on Article 5 and territorial defence as an appropriate and necessary response to Russia’s invasion and ongoing occupation of Ukraine. Prior to 2014, the Alliance had spent nearly a quarter century shifting its capabilities, manpower, force structure, doctrine, strategy and equipment toward expeditionary warfare. Conventional, heavy manoeuvre warfare and territorial defence were set aside while most Alliance members built expeditionary

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