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Demonstrators chant pro-Daesh slogans as they carry the group’s flags through Mosul, Iraq, June 2014. Courtesy of PA Images

The Three Pathways (3P) Model of Violent Extremism: A Framework to Guide Policymakers to the Right Questions about their Preventive Countermeasures

James Khalil
RUSI Journal, 13 September 2017
Tackling Extremism, National Security
Policymakers should be aware of the many paths to violent extremism.

Prominent frameworks relating to terrorism and violent extremism, including that developed by the NYPD and the popular ‘pyramid’ and ‘staircase’ analogies, tend to oversimplify or neglect the diversity of routes that individuals travel to violence. The Three Pathways (3P) model developed by James Khalil contributes to theory, and provides an effective lens through which policymakers and implementers can evaluate their current and future preventive countermeasures under the countering and preventing violent extremism frameworks.

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