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- RUSI Journal
- Volume: 161
- No: 2
- The Sword and the Covenant: The Origins of British Civil–Military Relations
The military covenant is often regarded as a recent tradition. In this article, Mark Rynehart explains how ancient military covenants emerged in Britain during the late Roman period, and were reinforced by versions imported from southern Europe and Saxon immigrants in the early medieval era. His analysis shows that ancient military covenants continue to influence modern military doctrine and social policy.