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This article assesses the development of governance, the economy and infrastructure, and public sector reform in Iraq. Although not traditional military functions, nonetheless the military took the lead in these areas because of the security situation in the country prior to the arrival of the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs). Other international organizations were operating in this theatre, but they were bound by tightly controlled movement restrictions because of the security situation. For this reason, the military component of the international effort was very much the Lead Agency in Operation Telic (Op Telic) 7.
To date, Op Telic has demonstrated variable levels of effectiveness in integrated civil-military planning. Much of the military emphasis has been on traditionally well-understood and well deﬁned functions, such as Security Sector Reform (SSR). SSR is, of course, extremely important, but as a consequence, civil-military integration of the British intervention was largely set aside, particularly in the early phases of the Peace Support Operation.
Louise Heywood is Head of the Armed Forces Programme in the Military Sciences Department, RUSI. She holds a BSc Hons in Environmental Science and Technology and an MLitt in Strategic Studies. She is a serving TA Royal Engineering Ofﬁcer who is currently a member of the Jt CIMIC Group and has recently returned from an operational tour in Iraq.