It has become commonplace to suggest that British people today would not accept the levels of casualties suffered on the Western Front during the First World War. In Afghanistan the loss of 454 soldiers caused deep public unease. Yet already the UK has lost over 80,000 people to coronavirus and people have become accustomed to the tragic daily toll.
Pakistan pays a heavy price for its claim to Kashmir: higher military spending, domestic instability, and exclusion from Indian markets and the transit trade with Central Asia. A more coherent Kashmir policy could be constructed at much reduced cost based on achievable objectives, a sober view of the national interest and the long-term needs of the Kashmiri people.
The UK has two options for modernising its armour: developing a Challenger 3 or procuring Leopard 2. The latter is an assured capability that will likely prove cheaper over the life of the programme. The former is risky but offers the UK an opportunity to develop valuable intellectual property.